You should ideally know all this before you begin breeding, but as is so often the case, people breed mice and then seek to learn more about them. Are you a member of the AFRMA or the ECMA? Both clubs have many respectable people in them who can teach you individually about individual varieties on various points. But in general, "teaching mouse genetics" is not the kind of thing that you can type up a response to on an Internet forum -- it's too general of a request. What are your specific questions?
If you find an individual to personally mentor you, I would stay away from hobby-breeder type people who are not affiliated with a club of some sort, as they often use names, terms, and standards that do not exist (except in their own heads), and while it is true that you can learn a lot from them in the short term, in the long term it will only cause confusion for you if you do become more serious and seek affiliation or want to show later on.
The AFRMA publishes a mouse genetics pamphlet I endorse. Our own Cait has a genetics explanation on her website I also endorse: http://www.fancymice.info/genetics.htm (I hope it's ok to post that here). There is a good link section there, too. If you search for "Coat Colors of Mice" you should find an online print of a book by Silvers which is also good. Becoming familiar with basic mouse color and coat genetics and how they work is a very good way (though not the only way) to become better able to tell varieties apart and such as you asked. Even if you've only paired a couple litters, I'm sure you already know more than you realize!